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Thursday, May 14, 2020 | History

2 edition of Contamination of refractory metals by oxygen, water vapor, and carbon monoxide found in the catalog.

Contamination of refractory metals by oxygen, water vapor, and carbon monoxide

M. D. Ketchum

Contamination of refractory metals by oxygen, water vapor, and carbon monoxide

by M. D. Ketchum

  • 112 Want to read
  • 25 Currently reading

Published by National Aeronautics and Space Administration; [for sale by the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.] in Washington .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Heat resistant alloys.,
  • Oxygen.,
  • Carbon monoxide.,
  • Vapors.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby M. D. Ketchum and C. A. Barrett.
    SeriesNASA contractor report, NASA CR-1537, NASA contractor report ;, NASA CR-1537.
    ContributionsBarrett, C. A., joint author., General Electric Company., Lewis Research Center.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsTL521.3.C6 A3 no. 1537, TN700 A3 no. 1537
    The Physical Object
    Paginationx, 120 p.
    Number of Pages120
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL4854834M
    LC Control Number75607924

    Carbon monoxide is a strong reductive agent, and whilst not known, it has been used in pyrometallurgy to reduce metals from ores since ancient times. Carbon monoxide strips oxygen off metal oxides, reducing them to pure metal in high temperatures, forming carbon dioxide in the process. Carbon monoxide is not usually supplied as is, in gaseous phase, in the reactor, but rather it is formed in Beilstein Reference: Examples are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide. Global Warming An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes), PRODUCED BY INCREASING OF GREENHOUSE GASES (CARBON DIOXIDE, METHANE & OZONE) IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

    Carbon monoxide, for example, by driving oxygen out of the bloodstream, causes apathy, fatigue, headache, disorientation, and decreased muscular coordination and visual acuity. Air pollution may possibly harm populations in ways so subtle or slow that they have not yet been detected. The order of elements by volume-fraction (which is approximately molecular mole-fraction) in the atmosphere is nitrogen (%), oxygen (%), argon (%), followed by (in uncertain order) carbon and hydrogen because water vapor and carbon dioxide, which represent most of these two elements in the air, are variable components. Sulfur, phosphorus, and all other elements are present in .

    Chemical properties Carbon does not dissolve in or react with water, acids, or most other materials. It does, however, react with oxygen. It burns in air to produce carbon dioxide (CO 2) and carbon monoxide (CO).The combustion (burning) of coal gave rise to the Industrial Revolution (). control about 95 percent of organic and carbon monoxide emissions (see Section , "Solvent Degreasing"). Metal Melting - Emissions released from melting furnaces include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, organic compounds, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and small quantities of chloride and fluoride Size: KB.


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Contamination of refractory metals by oxygen, water vapor, and carbon monoxide by M. D. Ketchum Download PDF EPUB FB2

Contamination of refractory metals by oxygen, water vapor, and carbon monoxid Topics: MATERIALS, METALLIC Year: Author: C. Barrett and M. Ketchum. Ketchum and C. Barrett:Contamination of Refractory Metals by Oxygen, Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide, NASA-CR, National Aeronautics and Cited by: @article{osti_, title = {Reactions of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, oxygen, and water vapor on Contamination of refractory metals by oxygen Pt/.

gamma. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and three-way catalysts}, author = {Subramaniam, B.}, abstractNote = {The CO-NO-O/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O reaction is of import in the catalytic cleanup of automotive exhaust gas.

This thesis deals with several aspects of this reaction system, both on Pt. Carbon Monoxide. Carbon monoxide is produced from incomplete burning of fuels such as petrol and diesel. When there is lack of oxygen then it result into incomplete burning of fuel which results into production of carbon monoxide instead of carbon dioxide.

It is a poisonous gas. Chapter Carbon monoxide General description Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most common and widely distributed air pollutants. It is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas that is poorly soluble in water.

Carbon monoxide has a slightly lower density than air. In the human body, it reacts readily with haemoglobin to form. Refractory alloys have high creep strength at high temperatures and excellent compatibility with Contamination of refractory metals by oxygen liquid metals as long as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and silicon impurities are kept below appropriate limits, typically in the range of a few to 10’s ppm.For example, Nb–1%Zr suffers embrittlement in as low as 10 ppm oxygen, which detrimentally affects its mechanical by: Major Uses of Refractory Metals* Table II Applications W Mo Ta Nb Re Electronics Alloying Nuclear Power X X X Aerospace X X X X Chemicals/Catalysts X X X X Metal Cutting & Forming X X X Mechanical Parts X X Mining/Oil Drilling X *Other examples are given throughout this book, particularly on the back cover.

Additionally, proprietary manufacturing methods and techniques can also be utilized to minimize ash or iron contamination of graphites.

Iron is a catalyst for oxidation of graphite in a carbon monoxide environment, so graphite intended for use as a refractory should contain relatively low ash and iron contents. Semi -graphite. In most cases, the contamination originates from outgassing of construction materials (e.g., H 2 gas, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons), from permeation of gases through seals (e.g., N 2, O 2, and H 2 O), or from desorption of molecules that are adsorbed on the wafer or the chamber walls (e.g., H 2, moisture, solvents).

Moisture can originate from Cited by: 1. Studying chemical vapor deposition processes with theoretical. highly impermeable to oxygen gas and water vapor.

It is Langer C, Quincke F () Action of carbon monoxide. on nickel. Oxygen Meter Oxygen (O 2) Measures the percentage of O 2 in air.

Uses an electrochemical sensor to measure the partial pressure of O 2 in the air and con-verts that reading to O 2 concen-tration. Must be calibrated prior to use to com-pensate for altitude and barometric pressure.

Certain gases, especially oxidants such as ozone, can affect read. On the other hand, refractory metals were used in the tools which helped to drill the well which produces the gasoline in your tank.

Piping of refractory metal alloys helped process it. And your oil may contain a refractory metal compound to increase its lubricating ability.

The paradox of refractory metals is that, despite their wide and constantly growing list ofFile Size: 1MB. Contamination in carbon monoxide processes can be minimized using two enabling technologies.

Use of an iron- and nickel-free cylinder package reduces iron and nickel contamination in CO gas to sub-ppb levels as shown by hydrolysis sampling, and reduces contamination on silicon wafers dry etched with CO by three orders of magnitude, as shown by File Size: KB.

@article{osti_, title = {Investigation of carbon monoxide disintegration of refractories in coal gasifiers. Annual progress report for the period June 1, }, author = {Jayatilleke, W and Martin, C and Brown, Jr, J J}, abstractNote = {CO disintegration of high alumina castables is not likely to be a problem in coal gasifiers which operate at or near atmospheric pressure.

Even with the most careful handling carbon contamination artifacts from Airborne Molecular Contamination (AMC) can creep in and interfere with imaging and measurement in e-beam instruments.

The Evactron De-Contaminator made by XEI Scientific is a tool that actively removes HC from the vacuum system and specimens within it to prevent these problems. A g sample of methane (CH 4) gas and g oxygen gas are scaled into a L vessel at °C and are allowed to reach e can react with oxygen to form gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor, or methane can react with oxygen to form gaseous carbon monoxide and water vapor.

The predominant reactions are between carbon (C) and oxygen, producing carbon dioxide (CO 2), and between hydrogen (H) and oxygen, producing water vapor (H 2 O). Incomplete combustion of organic compounds in the waste feedstream produces some carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon.

Metal dusting is a prevalent issue in the industry of petrochemicals, specifically in reforming units and cracker furnaces. In such, gas that is capable of synthesizing water vapor contains H2 and CO as well as water vapor.

Thus, all monomer that is a main material in polymer production may undergo metal. (5) carbon monoxide (CO), (6) organics, and (7) various other materials present in medical wastes, such as pathogens, cytotoxins, and radioactive diagnostic materials.

Particulate matter is emitted as a result of incomplete combustion of organics (i. e., soot) and byFile Size: KB.

Water Vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen sulfide Oxygen Several billion years ago, oxygen was missing from the earth's atmosphere but the atmosphere consisted of the noble gases, radon, carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, hydrochloric acid/gas, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and.

Motor vehicles are a major source of urban air pollution. They emit carbon monoxide that reduces man's ability to transport oxygen to his tissues; lead that increases man's body burden of this toxic metal; cancerigenic hydrocarbons; and reactive hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides that combine with sunlight to produce eye-irritating, plant.Table 7 Components of Exhaust Gases Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Acrolein Formaldehyde Content of Components, % ' by,Volmne.

with the Fnl 1 n«l ntr Trn AAf m*c». 05 80,05 1,35 0,34 0, 96 82,50 6[jO OiD9 0( Hone Change in the Content of Components, %.of 'Initial Volume 61 26 20 — - 44 .Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom connected by a triple bond.

The distance between the carbon and oxygen atom is pm, consistent with the presence of a triple bond. The bond dissociation energy of CO is kJ/mol and .